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مبارزه با ویروس کرونا، در کنار همدیگر[سوامیناتان سومیا، هندوستان تایمز(هند)، 8 مارس 2020](اداره کل رسانه های خارجی، داود حیدری)

مبارزه با ویروس کرونا، در کنار همدیگر[سوامیناتان سومیا، هندوستان تایمز(هند)، 8 مارس 2020](اداره کل رسانه های خارجی، داود حیدری)
-ویروس کرونا که شیوع آن در ماه دسامبر 2019 در چین آغاز کشد اکنون به 75 کشور جهان از جمله هند سرایت کرده و بیش از 3 هزار قربانی برجای گذاشته است. 80 درصد مبتلایان به کرونا بدون نیاز به درمان، بهبود می یابند. از جمله اقداماتی که دولت ها باید حتما به آن توجه داشته باشند آگاهی بخشیدن به توده مردم درباره این بیماری است. شفاف بودن مقامات رسمی درباره این بیماری از اهمیتی فوق العاده برخوردار است . اگر مردم به صداقت زمامداران باور داشته باشند تدابیر لازم را بهتر اتخاذ خواهند کرد.

مبارزه با ویروس کرونا، در کنار همدیگر
   1-ویروس کرونا که  شیوع آن در ماه دسامبر 2019 در چین  آغاز کشد اکنون به 75 کشور جهان از جمله هند سرایت کرده و بیش از 3 هزار قربانی برجای گذاشته است. 80 درصد مبتلایان به کرونا بدون نیاز به درمان، بهبود می یابند.
2- افراد سالخورده و کسانی که از ناراحتی های قلبی ، فشار خون و قند خون رنج می برند بیش از دیگران آسیب پذیرند. ترخ تلفات بین یک دهم درصد تا دو درصد است.
3- تلاش برای تولید واکسن برای مقابله با این ویروس آغاز شده است اما بین 12 تا 18 ماه طول می کشد تا واکس برای استفاده روی انسان آماده شود. کسانی که علائم بیماری کرونا را ندارند نیاز به استفاده از ماسک نیز ندارند. سازمان بهداشت جهانی از کمبود اقلام مربوط به حفاظت فردی در برابر این ویروس به شدت نگران است.
4- از جمله اقداماتی که دولت ها باید حتما به آن توجه داشته باشند آگاهی بخشیدن به توده مردم درباره این بیماری است. شفاف بودن مقامات رسمی درباره این بیماری از اهمیتی فوق العاده برخوردار است . اگر مردم به صداقت زمامداران باور داشته باشند تدابیر لازم را بهتر اتخاذ خواهند کرد.
5- سازمان بهداشت جهانی آمادگی دارد به هند و دیگر کشورهای درگیر این بیماری برای مقابله با آن کمک کند. همانگونه که مدیر کل سازمان بهداشت جهانی گفته است امروزه بزرگترین دشمن، خود ویروس کرونا نیست بلکه ایجاد وحشت ، شایعه سازی و برخورد نا مناسب با افراد مبتلا به کرونا عمده ترین عامل بازدارنده در مقابله با این بیمای و بازگو کردن واقعیت ها ، عقلانیت و همبستگی بزرگترین سرمایه در مبارزه با کرونا محسوب می شود.
منبع : اداره کل رسان های خارجی

Combating coronavirus, together
Prepare for increases, monitor its spread, be open with the people, coordinate all efforts
ANALYSIS Updated: Mar 08, 2020 20:20 IST

Soumya Swaminathan
School students seen wearing protective masks as a precautionary measure against coronavirus, New Delhi, March 5, 2020(Sanchit Khanna/HT PHOTO)
    
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, which began in China in December 2019, has since spread rapidly around the world. The disease has now been detected in more than 75 countries, including India, causing over 3,000 deaths worldwide. It is caused by SARS-like corona virus. Other members of the group cause the common cold.
The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, fatigue, and a dry cough. Some patients have aches and pains, a sore throat, or diarrhoea. The good news is that for most people, the disease is mild; about 80% will recover from the disease without the need for special treatment.
However, older people and those with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes, may become seriously ill. About 2 to 3% of people with the disease have died. This death rate is much higher than for seasonal influenza (0.1%). Only 2% of confirmed cases have been in children and adolescents of less than 20 years — it is unknown what role children play in transmission of the disease.
There are as yet no specific treatments to treat the disease, nor is a vaccine available. Vaccines are in development, but it will be at least 12-18 months before any are ready for use. Many repurposed drugs (including those used to treat HIV, influenza and other viral infections) are undergoing clinical trials, along with adjunctive treatments. Currently, management consists of symptomatic and supportive treatment. India should participate in the research and development effort to develop new tools — diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics — for this novel virus, as well as contribute to better understanding of its epidemiology and transmission dynamics.
The virus appears to spread through droplet transmission. When a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales, small droplets from the nose or mouth land on surfaces and objects around them. When others touch these surfaces and then touch their eyes, nose, or mouth, or they breathe in droplets from an infected person, they can catch the virus.
Fortunately, there are several things people can do to protect themselves. The most important is hand hygiene. People should wash their hands often with soap and water for 20 to 30 seconds; when water is not available, alcohol-based hand rubs should be used.
Stay at least one metre (three feet) away from anyone who is coughing or sneezing. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Practice good respiratory hygiene; cough or sneeze into a tissue or into your bent elbow. Dispose of used tissues immediately. People who feel unwell should stay at home.
People who do not have symptoms do not need to wear a medical mask. But those who do have symptoms and those who are caring for people with symptoms should wear masks. The World Health Organization (WHO) is deeply concerned by disruptions to the global supply of personal protective equipment, including medical masks, gloves, gowns, and aprons. Some of these shortages have been caused by irrational panic buying.
Everyone should follow the latest advice from national and local public health authorities.
What should these authorities be doing now?
All countries, including India, should have already activated their national public health emergency management mechanisms. For many countries, this will mean adapting an existing preparedness plan for influenza pandemics. The Integrated Health Information platform (IHIP) of the ministry of health can be used for epidemiological surveillance for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and severe pneumonia. Large-scale laboratory testing is critical, as is information sharing. Cases need to be rapidly detected and their contacts comprehensively and rapidly traced. Infection prevention and control practices in health facilities and communities should be reviewed and enhanced where necessary.
Health care facilities and staff should be prepared for large increases in numbers of people with suspected COVID-19. Geographic spread of the virus should be monitored, as well as transmission intensity, disease trends, characterisation of virologic features, and assessment of the impact of the disease on health care services. Information should be available for travellers and staff at points of entry (airports, ports).
One of the most critical things governments can do is to communicate clearly and accurately with the public. People need to understand what public health authorities do and do not know about the disease, and what they are doing to contain it. Clear and consistent messages from trusted experts and community leaders need to be disseminated in local languages. Two-way channels, such as text and telephone hotlines, and social media should be established so the population can get information and ask questions. This is also key to combating the spread of myths and misinformation.
I cannot emphasise enough how important it is for public officials to be transparent and open with the public. When citizens believe their government is being candid with them, they are more likely to take protective measures for themselves and their communities. Public health measures need to be tailored to particular situations and be frequently evaluated and updated, based on changing epidemiology. WHO is ready to assist India and all other countries in this outbreak. Technical guidance has been assembled, as well as a freely accessible database of publications on COVID-19. A wealth of resources, including a daily situation report, news releases, summaries of press briefings, and infographics for printing and social-media sharing, is available for the public, policymakers, clinicians, and public health officials.
Coordination and collaboration are essential to combat this common threat. As the director general of WHO Dr Tedros has said “Our greatest enemy right now is not the coronavirus itself. It’s fear, rumours and stigma”. And our greatest assets are facts, reason and solidarity.
Soumya Swaminathan is chief scientist, World Health Organization, Geneva

۲۰ اسفند ۱۳۹۸ ۱۰:۴۵

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